18 February 2011 Heterogeneously integrated microdisk lasers for optical interconnects and optical logic
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Proceedings Volume 7913, Laser Resonators and Beam Control XIII; 791319 (2011) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.885749
Event: SPIE LASE, 2011, San Francisco, California, United States
Abstract
Optical interconnect and optical packet switching systems could take advantage of small footprint, low power lasers and optical logic elements. Microdisk lasers, with a diameter below 10μm and fabricated in InP membranes with a high index contrast, offer this possibility at the telecom wavelengths. The lasers are fabricated using heterogeneous integration of InP membranes on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) passive waveguide circuits, which allows to combine the active elements with compact, high-index contrast passive elements. The lasing mode in such microdisk lasers is a whispering gallery mode, which can be either in the clockwise (CW) or counter clockwise direction (CCW) or in both. The coupling to the SOI wire waveguides is through evanescent coupling. Predefined, unidirectional operation can be achieved by terminating the SOI wires at one end with Bragg gratings. For all-optical flip-flops, the laser operation must be switchable between CW and CCW, using short optical pulses. Unidirectional operation in either direction is only possible if the coupling between CW and CCW direction is very small, requiring small sidewall surface roughness, and if the gain suppression is sufficiently large, requiring large internal power levels. All-optical flip-flops based on microdisk lasers with diameter of 7.5μm have been demonstrated. They operate with a CW power consumption of a few mW and switch in 60ps with switching energies as low as 1.8fJ. Operation as all-optical gate has also been demonstrated. The surface roughness is limited through optimized etching of the disks and the large internal power is obtained through good heat sink.
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Pauline Mechet, Liu Liu, Rajesh Kumar, Koen Huybrechts, Thijs Spuesens, Günther Roelkens, Erik-Jan Geluk, Tjibbe de Vries, Philippe Regreny, Dries Van Thourhout, Roel Baets, Geert Morthier, "Heterogeneously integrated microdisk lasers for optical interconnects and optical logic", Proc. SPIE 7913, Laser Resonators and Beam Control XIII, 791319 (18 February 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.885749; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.885749
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