18 January 2011 Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing
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Abstract
We review recent advances in subwavelength and diffractive structures in planar waveguides. First, we present a new type of microphotonic waveguide, exploiting the subwavelength grating (SWG) effect. We demonstrate several examples of subwavelength grating waveguides and components made of silicon, operating at telecom wavelengths. The SWG technique allows for engineering of the refractive index of a waveguide core over a range as broad as 1.5-3.5 simply by lithographic patterning using only two materials, for example Si and SiO2. This circumvents an important limitation in integrated optics, which is the fixed value of the refractive indices of the constituent materials in the absence of an active tuning mechanism. A subwavelength grating fibre-chip microphotonic coupler is presented with a loss as low as 0.9 dB and with minimal wavelength dependence over a broad wavelength range exceeding 200 nm. It is shown that the SWG waveguides can be used to make efficient waveguide crossings with minimal loss and negligible crosstalk. We also present a diffractive surface grating coupler with subwavelength nanostructure, that has been implemented in a Si-wire evanescent field biological sensor. Furthermore, we discuss a new type of planar waveguide multiplexer with a SWG engineered nanostructure, yielding an operation bandwidth exceeding 170 nm for a device size of only 160 μm × 100 μm.
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P. Cheben, P. Cheben, P. J. Bock, P. J. Bock, J. H. Schmid, J. H. Schmid, J. Lapointe, J. Lapointe, S. Janz, S. Janz, D.-X. Xu, D.-X. Xu, R. Ma, R. Ma, A. Densmore, A. Densmore, A. Delâge, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, B. Lamontagne, T. J. Hall, T. J. Hall, R. Halir, R. Halir, I. Molina-Fernández, I. Molina-Fernández, J.-M. Fédéli, J.-M. Fédéli, } "Subwavelength and diffractive waveguide structures and their applications in nanophotonics and sensing", Proc. SPIE 7941, Integrated Optics: Devices, Materials, and Technologies XV, 794111 (18 January 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.875431; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.875431
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