24 January 2011 GaSb and InP-based VCSELs at 2.3 μm emission wavelength for tuneable diode laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide
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Abstract
We present long-wavelength buried tunnel junction (BTJ) VCSELs for emission wavelengths around 2.3 μm. Two different device concepts have been realized utilizing either InP- or GaSb-based materials. The InP-VCSELs are based on a BTJ-design which has been well-proven for wavelengths up to 2 μm in recent years. To extend this range up to emission wavelengths around 2.3 μm, the main focus is set on an optimization of the active region. In this context, we use a graded and heavily strained quantum well design in conjunction with optimized growth conditions. The photoluminescence and x-ray characterization shows a very good material quality. Room-temperature operated VCSELs exhibit around 0.5 mW of output power with singlemode-emission at 2.36 μm representing the longest wavelength that has been achieved with InP-based interband lasers so far. GaSb-based devices comprise an epitaxial back mirror and a dielectric output mirror while the basic BTJ-principle is maintained. Using GaInAsSb quantum wells, the active region reveals excellent gain characteristics at 2.3 μm. Singlemode VCSELs show room temperature threshold currents around 1 mA and output powers of 0.7 mW, respectively. Both laser types have been implemented in a tuneable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS) setup to evaluate their capability for sensing of carbon monoxide. Using an absorption path length of only 10 cm, concentration measurements down to a few ppm have been successfully demonstrated.
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M. Ortsiefer, M. Ortsiefer, C. Neumeyr, C. Neumeyr, J. Rosskopf, J. Rosskopf, S. Arafin, S. Arafin, G. Böhm, G. Böhm, A. Hangauer, A. Hangauer, J. Chen, J. Chen, R. Strzoda, R. Strzoda, M.-C. Amann, M.-C. Amann, } "GaSb and InP-based VCSELs at 2.3 μm emission wavelength for tuneable diode laser spectroscopy of carbon monoxide", Proc. SPIE 7945, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices VIII, 794509 (24 January 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.871561; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.871561
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