25 March 2011 2D/3D image fusion of x-ray mammograms with speed of sound images: evaluation and visualization
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Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women. The established screening method to detect breast cancer is X-ray mammography. However, X-ray frequently provides poor contrast of tumors located within glandular tissue. In this case, additional modalities like MRI are used for diagnosis in clinical routine. A new imaging approach is Ultrasound Computer Tomography, generating three-dimensional speed of sound images. High speed of sound values are expected to be an indicator of cancerous structures. Therefore, the combination of speed of sound images and X-ray mammograms may benefit early breast cancer diagnosis. In previous work, we proposed a method based on Finite Elements to automatically register speed of sound images with the according mammograms. The FEM simulation overcomes the challenge that X-ray mammograms show two-dimensional projections of a deformed breast whereas speed of sound images render a three-dimensional undeformed breast in prone position. In this work, 15 datasets from a clinical study were used for further evaluation of the registration quality. The quality of the registration was measured by the displacement of the center of a lesion marked in both modalities. We found a mean displacement of 7.1 mm. For visualization, an overlay technique was developed, which displays speed of sound information directly on the mammogram. Hence, the methodology provides a good basis for multimodal diagnosis using mammograms and speed of sound images. It proposes a guidance tool for radiologists who may benefit from the combined information.
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Torsten Hopp, Torsten Hopp, Julie Bonn, Julie Bonn, Nicole V. Ruiter, Nicole V. Ruiter, Mark Sak, Mark Sak, Neb Duric, Neb Duric, "2D/3D image fusion of x-ray mammograms with speed of sound images: evaluation and visualization", Proc. SPIE 7968, Medical Imaging 2011: Ultrasonic Imaging, Tomography, and Therapy, 79680L (25 March 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.877333; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.877333

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