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15 April 2011 Resist freezing process challenges of cross pattern applications
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Three resist freezing methods (fluoride plasma, chemical and thermal freezing) were studied for double patterning cross pattern by printing the second layer directly on top of the first resist layer. Different methods show different challenges: plasma freezing is very hard to remove footing on both layers; Chemical freezing first layer CD will grow after completion of second pattern; thermal freezing will change line curvature when the CD is smaller than 50nm, if first layer is wave type pattern.
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Zishu Zhang, Kaveri Jain, Scott L. Light, and Anton J. deVilliers "Resist freezing process challenges of cross pattern applications", Proc. SPIE 7972, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVIII, 79720E (15 April 2011);

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