15 April 2011 Characterization of EUV irradiation effects on polystyrene derivatives studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS)
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Abstract
The trade-off among resolution, sensitivity, and line edge roughness (LER) is the most serious problem in actualization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV). As feature sizes are reduced, it becomes very strict to simultaneously meet these requirements. Also, reaction in resist materials induced by EUV photon is more complicate. In chemically amplified EUV resists, not acid generator but polymers mainly adsorbed EUV photons. The secondary electrons are generated from polymer upon exposure to ionizing radiation such as EUV radiation and electron beam. Therefore, the increase in secondary electrons generated by EUV photons adsorbed in resist film is very important factor in the resist design. Therefore, it is essential to know the ionization mechanisms of backbone polymers and understand the reaction mechanism in details in order to accomplish high sensitivity and ultra-fine pattern in EUV lithography. We investigated the photoelectron spectra of typical backbone polymers for chemically amplified EUV resists using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). Also, the structure degradations in polystyrene (PS) derivatives thin films induced by EUV radiation were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UPS.
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Hiroki Yamamoto, Takahiro Kozawa, Seiichi Tagawa, "Characterization of EUV irradiation effects on polystyrene derivatives studied by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS)", Proc. SPIE 7972, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXVIII, 79721H (15 April 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.879412; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.879412
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