Traditional transistor scaling methods served our industry well for more than three decades until the early 1990s when
leakage current and active power constraints threatened to end the continued improvements provided by Moore's Law.
The end of the traditional scaling era ushered in the beginning of the innovation era. Process technology innovations
such as strained silicon, high-k metal gate transistors, and copper + low-k interconnects have enabled continued
performance improvements for scaled devices. Microprocessor design and architecture innovations such as multi-core
designs combined with power gates were significant contributors to improved performance and improved power
efficiency. Future computing products demand small form factors and long battery life that can be met through a
combination of transistor innovation, System-on-Chip and System-in-Package integration techniques.
Mark Bohr, Mark Bohr,
"Moore's Law in the innovation era", Proc. SPIE 7974, Design for Manufacturability through Design-Process Integration V, 797402 (29 March 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.883462; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.883462