28 March 2011 A viscoelastic model for dielectric elastomers based on a continuum mechanical formulation and its finite element implementation
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Smart materials are active and multifunctional materials, which play an important part for sensor and actuator applications. These materials have the potential to transform passive structures into adaptive systems. However, a prerequisite for the design and the optimization of these materials is, that reliable models exist, which incorporate the interaction between the different combinations of thermal, electrical, magnetic, optical and mechanical effects. Polymeric electroelastic materials, so-called electroactive polymer (EAP), own the characteristic to deform if an electric field is applied. EAP's possesses the benefit that they share the characteristic of polymers, these are lightweight, inexpensive, fracture tolerant, elastic, and the chemical and physical structure is well understood. However, the description "electroactive polymer" is a generic term for many kinds of different microscopic mechanisms and polymeric materials. Based on the laws of electromagnetism and elasticity, a visco-electroelastic model is developed and implemented into the finite element method (FEM). The presented three-dimensional solid element has eight nodes and trilinear interpolation functions for the displacement and the electric potential. The continuum mechanics model contains finite deformations, the time dependency and the nearly incompressible behavior of the material. To describe the possible, large time dependent deformations, a finite viscoelastic model with a split of the deformation gradient is used. Thereby the time dependent characteristic of polymeric materials is incorporated through the free energy function. The electromechanical interactions are considered by the electrostatic forces and inside the energy function.
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A. Bueschel, A. Bueschel, S. Klinkel, S. Klinkel, W. Wagner, W. Wagner, } "A viscoelastic model for dielectric elastomers based on a continuum mechanical formulation and its finite element implementation", Proc. SPIE 7976, Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) 2011, 79761R (28 March 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.880283; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.880283

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