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25 October 2011 Thermocavitation as a tool for stratum corneum permeation
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The cavitation phenomenon has been extensively studied by numerous researchers because the collapse of the cavitation bubbles is responsible for a number of phenomena of interest in the fields of science and engineering, such as: Luminescence, sonochemistry, cavitation damage, ultrasonic cleaning, etc. The most common methods to produce cavitation bubbles are: pulsed lasers, electroforming, sonophoresis, radiofrequency, and Venturi effect. In this paper we are interested in a method called thermocavitation, which is induced by low power, CW laser radiation in a highly-absorbing solution of copper nitrate (CuNO4) dissolved in water. The bubble formation occurs when an overheated region (~300°C) is created followed by explosive phase transition and the formation of vapor-gas bubbles, which expand and later collapse very rapidly emitting intense acoustic shockwaves. The characteristic effects of bubble dynamics, in particular the formation, growth, collapse and a high-speed liquid jet at the moment of collapse are recorded using a high speed video camera (Phantom V7, Version 9.1) with frame rates of up to one hundred thousand frames/s at different laser powers (62 to 200 mW). The shockwaves are sufficiently energetic that they may be employed to generate deep lesions in biological tissue models, such as agar gel and chicken breast samples as a preamble to future studies on thermocavitation for tissue ablations. This approach of achieving thermocavitation is attractive due to the fact that it is generated with low power CW lasers which decrease cost and complexity relative to other approaches.
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J. P. Padilla-Martínez, J. C. Ramírez-San-Juan, R. Ramos-García, F. Sun, and G. Aguilar "Thermocavitation as a tool for stratum corneum permeation", Proc. SPIE 8011, 22nd Congress of the International Commission for Optics: Light for the Development of the World, 80112Z (25 October 2011);


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