6 July 2011 HgCdTe APD-based linear-mode photon counting components and ladar receivers
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Abstract
Linear mode photon counting (LMPC) provides significant advantages in comparison with Geiger Mode (GM) Photon Counting including absence of after-pulsing, nanosecond pulse to pulse temporal resolution and robust operation in the present of high density obscurants or variable reflectivity objects. For this reason Raytheon has developed and previously reported on unique linear mode photon counting components and modules based on combining advanced APDs and advanced high gain circuits. By using HgCdTe APDs we enable Poisson number preserving photon counting. A metric of photon counting technology is dark count rate and detection probability. In this paper we report on a performance breakthrough resulting from improvement in design, process and readout operation enabling >10x reduction in dark counts rate to ~10,000 cps and >104x reduction in surface dark current enabling long 10 ms integration times. Our analysis of key dark current contributors suggest that substantial further reduction in DCR to ~ 1/sec or less can be achieved by optimizing wavelength, operating voltage and temperature.
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Michael Jack, Michael Jack, Justin Wehner, Justin Wehner, John Edwards, John Edwards, George Chapman, George Chapman, Donald N. B. Hall, Donald N. B. Hall, Shane M. Jacobson, Shane M. Jacobson, } "HgCdTe APD-based linear-mode photon counting components and ladar receivers", Proc. SPIE 8033, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques V, 80330M (6 July 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.888134; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.888134
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