17 May 2011 An external sensor for instantaneous measurement of the internal temperature in lithium-ion rechargeable cells
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Abstract
Based on a four-probe electrical measurement, we have developed a Battery Internal Temperature Sensor. BITS, unlike a surface-mounted thermocouple, provides a direct measure of the internal temperature. We have demonstrate in several different rechargeable lithium-ion cells ranging in capacity from 2- to 50-Ah, the existence of an intrinsic relationship between a cell's internal temperature and a readily measurable electrical parameter. Today, container rupture and fire are the most detrimental consequences of thermal runaway in rechargeable Li-ion cells. Although storing or operating Li-ion cells in high-temperature environments is not advisable, high internal temperature has a greater potential to initiate catastrophic events. Measuring the environmental temperature at any proximity to the surface of the cell is insufficient to know or intervene with fast-rising internal heat. For example, monitoring internal temperature in real time has direct relevance to the thermal runaway caused by external and internal short circuits that may have no relevance to the external temperature. Yet, until now, there has been no simple technique to monitor the internal temperature of a single cell or multiple cells in Li-ion batteries. BITS, developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, is a miniature instrument, with demonstrated capability to measure and report internal temperature of individual cells in a multi-cell battery pack at the rate of 200-ms/cell.
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Rengaswamy Srinivasan, Bliss G. Carkhuff, Michael H. Butler, Andrew C. Baisden, O. Manuel Uy, "An external sensor for instantaneous measurement of the internal temperature in lithium-ion rechargeable cells", Proc. SPIE 8035, Energy Harvesting and Storage: Materials, Devices, and Applications II, 80350D (17 May 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.884691; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.884691
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KEYWORDS
Temperature metrology

Phase shifts

Sensors

Temperature sensors

Applied physics

Fuzzy logic

Logic

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