4 May 2011 New VCSEL technology with scalability for single mode operation and densely integrated arrays
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Abstract
Data are presented demonstrating a new lithographic vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) technology, which produces simultaneous mode- and current-confinement only by lithography and epitaxial crystal growth. The devices are grown by solid source molecular beam epitaxy, and have lithographically defined sizes that vary from 3 μm to 20 μm. The lithographic process allows the devices to have high uniformity throughout the wafer and scalability to very small size. The 3 μm device shows a threshold current of 310 μA, the slope efficiency of 0.81 W/A, and the maximum output power of more than 5 mW. The 3 μm device also shows single-mode single-polarization operation without the use of surface grating, and has over 25 dB side-mode-suppression-ratio up to 1 mW of output power. The devices have low thermal resistance due to the elimination of oxide aperture. High reliability is achieved by removal of internal strain caused by the oxide, stress test shows no degradation for the 3 μm device operating at very high injection current level of 142 kA/cm2 for 1000 hours, while at this dive level commercial VCSELs fail rapidly. The lithographic VCSEL technology can lead to manufacture of reliable small size laser diode, which will have application in large area 2-D arrays and low power sensors.
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Guowei Zhao, Abdullah Demir, Sabine Freisem, Yu Zhang, Xiaohang Liu, Dennis G. Deppe, "New VCSEL technology with scalability for single mode operation and densely integrated arrays", Proc. SPIE 8054, Enabling Photonics Technologies for Defense, Security, and Aerospace Applications VII, 80540A (4 May 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.887953; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.887953
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