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18 May 2011 Finite element modelling of induced gratings in nonlinear optics
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the scattering by a nonlinear crystal whose depth is about the wavelength of the impinging field. More precisely, an infinite nonlinear slab is illuminated by an incident field which is the sum of three plane waves of the same frequency, but with different propagation vectors and amplitudes, in such a way that the resulting incident field is periodic. Moreover, the height of the slab is of the same order of the wavelength, and therefore the so-called slowly varying envelope approximation cannot be used. In our approach we take into account some retroactions of the scattered fields between them (for instance, we do not use the nondepletion of the pump beam). As a result, a system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations has to be solved. To do this, the finite element method (FEM) associated with perfectly matched layers is well suited. Nevertheless, when using the FEM, the sources have to be located in the meshed area, which is of course impossible when dealing with plane waves. To get round this difficulty, the real incident field is simulated by a virtual field emitted by an appropriate antenna located in the meshed domain and lying above the obstacle (here the slab).
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Pierre Godard, Frédéric Zolla, and André Nicolet "Finite element modelling of induced gratings in nonlinear optics", Proc. SPIE 8071, Nonlinear Optics and Applications V, 80710X (18 May 2011);

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