14 June 2011 Novel assay for direct fluorescent imaging of sialidase activity
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Here we describe a novel approach to sialidase activity estimation. Sialidases (EC, exo-α-sialidases), also known as neuraminidases, are the group of enzymes, which hydrolyze the glycoside bound between terminal sialic acid and subsequent carbohydrate residue in glycoproteins and glycolipids. Sialic acids are the group of monosaccharides with acidic properties, since they are acetylated or glycolylated derivates of neuraminic acid. Flu and some other viruses use neuraminidase activity to infect host cells. The level of sialylation was shown to be tightly connected with tumor cell invasiveness and metastatic potential, sialylation level also determines the clearance of aged or virus-infected cells. Thus, detection of sialidase activity is of primary importance for clinical diagnostics as well as life science research. The authors developed the assay for both visualization and estimation of sialidase activity in living cells. Previously known methods for sialidase activity detection required destruction of cellular material, or were low-sensitive, or provided no information on the activity localization in certain intracellular compartment. To overcome these problems, a fluorogenic neuraminidase substrate, 4-MUNA was utilized, and the method for detection of neuraminidase activity using fluorescent microscopy was proposed, it provided a high signal level and information on cellular localization of the studied enzyme. By using this approach the increase of sialidase activity on apoptotic cells was demonstrated in comparison to viable and primary necrotic cells.
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A. Tomin, T. Shkandina, R. Bilyy, "Novel assay for direct fluorescent imaging of sialidase activity", Proc. SPIE 8087, Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging II, 80871Z (14 June 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.889172; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.889172

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