20 September 2011 Diode-coupled Ag nanoantennas for nanorectenna energy conversion
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Arrays of "nanorectennas" consist of diode-coupled nanoantennas with plasmonic resonances in the visible/near-infrared (vis/nir) regime, and are expected to convert vis/nir radiative power into useful direct current. We study plasmonic resonances in large format (~ 1 mm2 area) arrays, consisting of electron beam-patterned horizontal (e.g., parallel to the substrate) Ag lines patterned on ultrathin (< 20 nm) tunneling barriers (NiO, NbOx, and other oxides). Our e-beam fabrication technique is scalable to large dimensions, and allows us to easily probe different antenna dimensions. These tunneling barriers, located on a metallic ground plane, rectify the alternating current generated in the nanoantenna at resonance. We measure the plasmonic resonances in these nanoantennas, and find good agreement with modeling, which also predicts that the electric field driving the electrons into the ground plane (and therefore the rectification efficiency) is considerably enhanced at resonance. Various metal-insulator-metal tunneling diodes, incorporating the afore-mentioned barrier layers and different metals for the ground plane, are experimentally characterized and compared to our conduction model. We observe ~ 1 mV signals from NiO-based nanorectenna arrays illuminated by 532 nm and 1064 nm laser pulses, and discuss the origin of these signals.
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Richard Osgood, Richard Osgood, Stephen Giardini, Stephen Giardini, Joel Carlson, Joel Carlson, Gustavo E. Fernandes, Gustavo E. Fernandes, Jin Ho Kim, Jin Ho Kim, Jimmy Xu, Jimmy Xu, Matthew Chin, Matthew Chin, Barbara Nichols, Barbara Nichols, Madan Dubey, Madan Dubey, Philip Parilla, Philip Parilla, Joseph Berry, Joseph Berry, David Ginley, David Ginley, Prakash Periasamy, Prakash Periasamy, Harvey Guthrey, Harvey Guthrey, Ryan O'Hayre, Ryan O'Hayre, Walter Buchwald, Walter Buchwald, } "Diode-coupled Ag nanoantennas for nanorectenna energy conversion", Proc. SPIE 8096, Plasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties IX, 809610 (20 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.893313; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.893313

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