20 September 2011 Two-photon fluorescence near-field pH measurement for mitochondria activity
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We proposed a novel pH measurement method based on two-photon fluorescence excitation of a dual-wavelength pHsensitive dye combined with scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) that can be used to evaluate mitochondrial activity. Mitochondria produce ATP using a proton concentration (pH) gradient generated between both sides of their inner membrane. Thus, pH distribution around mitochondria can change with time when mitochondria produce ATP. This pH distribution has attracted interest because of its influence on necrotic cell death. Because ATP depletion causes necrotic cell death, measurement of pH distribution around mitochondria is expected to lead to clarification of the mechanism underlying necrotic cell death. However, it is very difficult to accurately measure pH around mitochondria using conventional pH measurement methods. In this study, a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye was excited locally using two-photon fluorescence excitation. In addition, collection-mode SNOM was used to avoid reabsorption by collecting the fluorescent light directly from a florescence point. Using this method, we successfully calibrated pH and observed temporal variations in pH after dropwise addition of acid. Moreover, mitochondrial activity was successfully observed based on these pH changes.
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Y. Kanazashi, Y. Kanazashi, Y. Li, Y. Li, T. Onojima, T. Onojima, K. Iwami, K. Iwami, Y. Ohta, Y. Ohta, N. Umeda, N. Umeda, } "Two-photon fluorescence near-field pH measurement for mitochondria activity", Proc. SPIE 8105, Instrumentation, Metrology, and Standards for Nanomanufacturing, Optics, and Semiconductors V, 81050E (20 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.893359; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.893359

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