28 September 2011 Evidence for unmediated momentum transfer between light waves
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Dowling and Gea-Benacloche (1992) proved mathematically that "...under certain circumstances, it is possible to consistently interpret interference as the specular reflection of two electromagnetic waves off each other..." Combining experiment, model, and logic, we confirm this statement. Contrary to the supposition that electromagnetic waves/photons cannot interact, it is possible to interpret the results to indicate that identical out-of-phase waves and opposite polarity photons repel or, at least, cannot pass through each other. No energy is detected in the dark/null zones of wave interference. Because energy appears to be absent, the exchange of momentum through the null zone must redirect/repel light waves into bright zones. Our Zero-Slit Experiment (ZSX) provides diffraction-free interference in air between two portions of a divided laser beam. This experiment was initially an attempt to completely cancel a section of these two beams by recombining them in air when they are 180° out-of-phase. We have reduced interference patterns close to a double-bright zone (with 3 null zones), but no further. Within the limits of laser-beam spreading, we have studied the resulting interference patterns and compared them with models of collision between identical particles. It may be possible to distinguish light from other Bosons, if the model of opposite phases repelling is valid. An EM field-line model of the photon is presented to explain the interactions needed to produce momentum transfer.
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W. R. Hudgins, W. R. Hudgins, A. Meulenberg, A. Meulenberg, S. Ramadass, S. Ramadass, } "Evidence for unmediated momentum transfer between light waves", Proc. SPIE 8121, The Nature of Light: What are Photons? IV, 812115 (28 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.892916; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.892916

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