This PDF file contains the front matter associated with SPIE Proceedings Volume 8129, including the Title Page, Copyright information, Table of Contents, Introduction, and Conference Committee listing.
The design of the refracting telescope advanced rapidly following its invention in 1608, reaching its modern
configuration in about a century. Even though the development of binoculars began almost simultaneously, nearly three
hundred years elapsed before practical prismatic binoculars became available. The impediments to practical binoculars
were not only in optical design, but in mechanical design, manufacturing, and materials. This paper will document the
history of telescopes and binoculars from an engineering perspective looking at the evolution of basic optical system
layout as well as some of the mechanical issues faced. This development will be illuminated using examples from the
Museum of Optics at the College of Optical Sciences at the University of Arizona.
Three-dimensional displays have become increasingly present in consumer markets. However, the ability to capture threedimensional
images inexpensively and without major modifications to current cameras is uncommon. Our goal is to create
a modification to a common commercial camera that allows a three dimensional reconstruction. We desire such an imaging
system to be inexpensive and easy to use. Furthermore, we require that any three-dimensional modification to a camera
does not reduce its resolution.
Here we present a possible solution to this problem. A commercial digital camera is used with a projector system
with astigmatic focus to capture images of a scene. By using an astigmatic projected pattern we can create two different
focus depths for horizontal and vertical features of the projected pattern, thereby encoding depth. This projector could be
integrated into the flash unit of the camera. By carefully choosing a pattern we are able to exploit this differential focus
in image processing. Wavelet transforms are performed on the image that pick out the projected pattern. By taking ratios
of certain wavelet coefficients we are able to correlate the distance an object at a particular transverse position is from the
camera to the contrast ratios.
We present our information regarding construction, calibration, and images produced by this system. The nature of
linking a projected pattern design and image processing algorithms will be discussed.
There are many advantages to minimally invasive surgery (MIS). An endoscope is the optical system of choice by the
surgeon for MIS. The smaller the incision or opening made to perform the surgery, the smaller the optical system needed.
For minimally invasive neurological and skull base surgeries the openings are typically 10-mm in diameter (dime sized)
or less. The largest outside diameter (OD) endoscope used is 4mm. A significant drawback to endoscopic MIS is that it
only provides a monocular view of the surgical site thereby lacking depth information for the surgeon. A stereo view
would provide the surgeon instantaneous depth information of the surroundings within the field of view, a significant
advantage especially during brain surgery.
Providing 3D imaging in an endoscopic objective lens system presents significant challenges because of the tight
packaging constraints. This paper presents a promising new technique for endoscopic 3D imaging that uses a single lens
system with complementary multi-bandpass filters (CMBFs), and describes the proof-of-concept demonstrations
performed to date validating the technique. These demonstrations of the technique have utilized many commercial off-the-
shelf (COTS) components including the ones used in the endoscope objective.
We have developed the wide and narrow dual image guidance system for ground vehicle on fast focusing and stereo
matching operation. The fast focusing catches the distance information of outside world. The stereo matching operation
on the focused two wide images finds the characteristic position to detect the fine distance information through the fast
focusing using the narrow images due to the camera with the long focal length.
Our fast focusing algorithm works precisely on the differential image such as the Daubechies wavelet transformed
high pass image, the Roberts image, Prewitt image, Sobel image and the Laplacian image.
After the stereo matching operation on the focused wide images, the two cameras serves the narrow image focusing
operation. This procedure establishes the reliability of the detection of the object and gives the fine image information of
the object. The pointing operation of the long focal length camera of the narrow image uses the related pixel address
information due to the stereo matching and the 2 axes gimbal equipment of the precise resolution.
We experimented the detection of the object by stereo matching and ranging the fine distance by narrow image
focusing. The experiment gives the appropriate detection and fine pointing of the narrow image focusing to meet the
guidance capability of the ground vehicle.
In this paper, we proposed a miniature auto-focus image system without moving components. We had previously
presented a 2-Mega-Pixel auto-focus module by combining reflective optics, refractive optics and MEMS
deformable mirror. This configuration can be further improved. We expanded 2-Mega-Pixel image plane to 8-Mega-Pixel image plane and corrected the aberration by adding one more lens as a stop. For the concern of the
cost, we distributed the optical power of the adding lens to the fixed reflecting mirror and the deformable mirror,
and we designed them as freeform surfaces to compensate aberrations. Finally, an 8M pixel auto-focus image
system that FOV is ±26° can be achieved. The MTF at half spatial frequency is above 25% , and the thickness of
the system is 8.2mm.
In recent years, optical zoom function of the mobile camera phones has been studied. However, traditional systems use
motors to change separation of lenses to achieve zoom function, suffering from long total length and high power
consumption, which is not suitable for mobile phones use. Adopting MEMS polymer deformable mirrors in zoom
systems has the potential to reduce thickness and have the advantage of low chromatic aberration. In this paper, we
presented a 2X continuous optical zoom systems for mobile phones, using two deformable mirrors, suitable for 5-Mega-pixel
image sensors. In our design, the thickness of the zoom system is about 11 mm. The smallest EFL (effective focal
length) is 4.7 mm at full field angle of 52° and the f/# is 4.4. The longest EFL of the module is 9.4 mm and the f/# is 6.4.
Light Sheet Illumination Microscopy (LSIM) is an imaging modality featuring the novel arrangement with the
illumination axis perpendicular to the detection axis. In this technology a well defined light sheet is generated and
aligned precisely to the focal plane of the microscope objective and thus only the thin in-focus layer of the sample is
illuminated and imaged, thereby avoiding out-of-focus light. Besides the inherent optical sectioning function, other
advantages include fast imaging speed, high longitudinal resolution and decreased light-induced damage. Though
promising, this microscopy is currently restricted to imaging fluorescently labeled tissue; in inspection of intact tissue
using scattered light, the acquired images suffer from intense speckles because of the severe coherence in the
illumination. This work aims to build a microscope capable of achieving intrinsic images of the fluorescence-free sample
with reduced or eliminated speckles, by developing a low coherence light sheet illumination. To diminish the spatial
coherence, the sample is illuminated with tens of independent sub-beams (without inter-coherence) illuminating the FOV
(Field Of View) of the microscope with diverse incident angles. The temporal coherence is dramatically reduced by
employing a supercontinuum laser with a broad spectrum as the light source. The new microscopy significantly extends
the functionality of Light Sheet Illumination Microscopy and will enable many new bioimaging applications.
We designed an optical system for tracking the retinal movement of a jumping spider as a stimulus is presented to it. The
system, using all off-the-shelf optical components except for one custom aspheric plate, consists of three sub-systems
that share a common path: a visible stimuli presentation sub-system, a NIR illumination sub-system, and a NIR retinal
imaging sub-system. A 25 mm clearance between the last element and the spider ensures a stable positioning of the
spider. The stimuli presentation system relays an image from a display to the spider eye, matching the 15 arcmin
resolution of the two principal eyes and producing a virtual image at a distance of 255 mm from the spider, with a visual
full field of view of 52°. When viewing a stimulus, the spider moves its retinas, which cover a full field of view of only
0.6°, and directs them to view different places in the visual field. The retinal imaging system uses a NIR camera to track
changes of 0.5° in the field of view seen by the spider. By tracking retinal movement across images presented to spiders,
we will learn how they search for visual cues to identify prey, rivals, and potential mates.
We report the simulation and analytical results obtained for homogenous or bulk sensing of protein on Siliconon-
insulator strip waveguide based microring resonator. The radii of the rings considered are 5 μm and 20 μm;
the waveguide dimensions are 300 × 300 nm. A gap of (i) 200 nm and (ii) 300 nm exists between the ring and
the bus waveguide. The biomaterial is uniformly distributed over a thickness which exceeds the evanescent field
penetration depth of 150 nm. The sensitivities of the resonators are 32.5 nm/RIU and 17.5 nm/RIU (RIU - Refractive index unit) respectively.
The GelOE optical engineering software implements multi-threaded ray tracing with just a few simple cross-platform OpenMP directives. Timings as a function of the number of threads are presented for two quite different ZEMAX non-sequential sample problems running on a dual-boot 12-core Apple computer and compared to not only ZEMAX but also FRED (plus single-threaded ASAP and CodeV). Also discussed are the relative merits of using Mac OSX or Windows 7, 32-bit or 64-bit mode, single or double precision floats, and the Intel or GCC compilers. It is found that simple cross-platform multi-threading can be more efficient than the Windows-specific kind used in the commercial codes and who's the fastest ray tracer depends on the specific problem. Note that besides ray trace speed, overall productivity also depends on other things like visualization, ease-of-use, documentation, and technical support of which none are rated here.
Compact fluorescent lamps contain mercury gas which generates ultraviolet radiation. A thin powder layer
constituted of rare-earth oxides is coated inside the glass tube. The role of this layer is to convert the inside
ultraviolet radiation into outside visible radiation. We focus here on a particular powder layer, constituted by
phosphor grains. The phosphor layer has to achieve two distinct goals. On the one hand the grains have to absorb
the maximum amount of ultraviolet radiation in order to generate visible light, and on the other hand the
transmission of visible light has to be maximized in order to optimize the efficiency of the compact fluorescent
lamp. Here, we study the influences of grain size, grain shape, density of packing powder, and thickness of the
phosphor coating. Such a study is a first step towards a better understanding of the conversion efficiency of
ultraviolet radiation into visible radiations, and can eventually, help to improve the production line of compact
fluorescent lamps. All the presented simulations were performed with the commercial software LightTools®
using a ray tracing method.
Proc. SPIE 8129, Simulation and optimization of a sub-micron beam for macromolecular crystallography using SHADOW and XOP at GM/CA CAT at the APS, 81290E (10 September 2011); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.894173
The small, high intensity and low convergence beams available on beamlines at 3rd generation synchrotron sources have been a
boon to macromolecular crystallography. It is now becoming routine to solve structures using a beam in the 5 - 20 micron
(FWHM) range. However, many problems in structural biology suffer from poor S/N due to small (a few microns) crystals or
larger inhomogenous crystals. In additional, theoretical calculations and experimental results have demonstrated that radiation
damage may be reduced by using a micron-sized X-ray beam. At GM/CA CAT we are developing a sub-micron, low convergence
beam to address these issues. The sub-micron beam capability will be developed on the existing beamline 23ID-D where the
minimum beam size available to users is currently 5 microns in diameter. The target goals are a beam size of ~0.8 micron
(FWHM) in diameter, with a beam convergence of less 0.6 milli-rads, a flux greater than 5×1010 photons/sec, and an energy range
from 5 to 35 keV. Five optical systems will be compared: 1) a single set of highly demagnifying Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) mirrors,
2) multiple Fresnel Zone Plates (FZP), 3) a set of K-B mirrors focusing to a secondary source that is imaged by another set of K-B
mirrors, 4) a set of K-B mirrors focusing to a secondary source that is imaged by a FZP, 5) a horizontal focusing mirror focusing
to a secondary source that is imaged by another horizontal mirror together with a vertical focusing mirror. Here we will present
the results of a design optimization based on ray trace simulations (SHADOW), flux calculations (XOP), and experimental results
Imaging aberrations that have linear dependence on field angle are caused by pupil aberrations that can be described
using the Abbe sine condition. This well-known relationship is frequently used to guide the design of optical imaging
systems. For example, the aberration of coma is eliminated in the design of axisymmetric systems by controlling the
pupil distortion, as defined by a standard implementation of the sine condition. An optical system with misalignments of
surface irregularities will suffer pupil distortions that are quantified using a more generalized form of the sine condition.
Such pupil aberrations create image aberrations that have linear dependence on field angle. While it is possible to infer
the state of alignment by measuring multiple field points, it may be more straightforward to perform a single on-axis
measurement of the sine condition violations. This paper summarizes the generalized sine condition and relationship
between violations of this condition and aberrations with linear field dependence. An application is discussed for
measuring sine condition violations of a 4-mirror system, which allows determination of the off-axis aberrations.
Students are less enthused in performing various spectrometry experiments in a conventional optics laboratory at the
undergraduate level. In order to motivate students towards spectrometry, the present development focuses on innovating
spectrometry experiments in undergraduate optics laboratory by integrating a linear CCD (Charge Coupled Device) for
optical intensity capture using LabVIEW based application and a Digital Storage Oscilloscope with NI LabVIEW Signal
Express. In the first step, students have calibrated wavelength in terms of x- position using a standard Mercury light
source. Then this calibration has been used to display and measure the emission spectra of various light sources. Various
measurements performed include characterizing various LEDs in terms of wavelengths emitted for use in measurement
of Planck's constant, measuring characteristic wavelengths in emission spectra of hydrogen lamp (for calculating
In this work, we propose two new optical structures, using the Simultaneous Multiple Surfaces (SMS) method,
comprised of 2 reflecting surfaces and 2 refracting surfaces, 800mm focal length, f/8 (aperture diameter 100 mm)
and 1.18° diagonal field of view in the SWIR band. The lens surfaces are rotational symmetric and calculated to have
good control of non-paraxial rays. We have achieved designs with excellent performance, and with total system
length of less than 60 mm.
Fresnel lens solar concentrators continue to fulfill a market requirement as a system component in high volume cost
effective Concentrating Photovoltaic (CPV) electricity generation. Design and optimization may be performed
using comprehensive system simulation tools, but before investing in the effort to build a complete virtual
model framework, much insight can be gathered beforehand by generating a parameterized simulation cache and
referencing those results.
To investigate the performance space of the Fresnel lens, a fast simulation method which is a hybrid between
raytracing and analytical computation is employed to generate a cache of simulation data. This data is postprocessed
to yield results that are not readily achieved via derivation. Example plots that can be used for look-up
purposes will be included.
Lens parameters that will be interrogated include focal length, index of refraction, prism fidelity, aperture,
transmission and concentration ratio. In order to compactly represent a large variety of lens configurations, some
variables that define the Fresnel lens will be parameterized.
Analysis will be limited to Fresnel lens prisms oriented toward the photovoltaic (PV) cell and the plano
surface directed toward the sun. The reverse of this configuration is rarely encountered in solar concentration
applications and is omitted.
Manufacturing technologies as injection molding or embossing specify their production limits for minimum radii of the
vertices or draft angle for demolding, for instance. These restrictions may limit the system optical efficiency or affect the
generation of undesired artifacts on the illumination pattern when dealing with optical design. A novel manufacturing
concept is presented here, in which the optical surfaces are not obtained from the usual revolution symmetry with respect
to a central axis (z axis), but they are calculated as free-form surfaces describing a spiral trajectory around z axis. The
main advantage of this new concept lies in the manufacturing process: a molded piece can be easily separated from its
mold just by applying a combination of rotational movement around axis z and linear movement along axis z, even for
negative draft angles. The general designing procedure will be described in detail.
Liquid crystal displays have many good qualities, such as ultrathinness, light weight, high brightness, and so forth. It
is very important to improve the display performance of backlight module systems to provide better uniformity,
brightness, lower power consumption, and lower weight. In backlight modules, the light guide plate (LGP) is a key
component in reducing the cost and easier access to develop LGPs on its own. This research proposes the concept of
Back Light Unit (BLU) with external illuminance. This special optical design may introduce the external light into BLU
in order to improve the power-saving. One is for 14 inch monitor, which has 21% improvement. Another for 3.5 inch
display might have improvement 15%.
Students at the school level from grade 7 to 12 are taught various concepts of geometrical optics but with little hands-on
activities. Light propagation through different media, image formation using lenses and mirrors under different
conditions and application of basic principles to characterization of lenses, mirrors and other instruments has been a
subject which although fascinates students but due to lack of suitable demonstrating setups, students find difficulty in
understanding these concepts and hence unable to appreciate the importance of such concepts in various useful scientific
apparatus, day to day life, instruments and devices. Therefore, students tend to cram various concepts related to
geometrical optics instead of understanding them. As part of the extension activity in the University Grants Commission
major research project "Investigating science hands-on to promote innovation and research at undergraduate level" and
University of Delhi at Acharya Narendra Dev College SPIE student chapter, students working under this optics outreach
programme have demonstrated various experiments on geometrical optics using a five beam laser ray box and various
optical components like different types of mirrors, lenses, prisms, optical fibers etc. The various hands-on activities
includes demonstrations on laws of reflection, image formation using plane, concave and convex mirrors, mirror
formula, total internal reflection, light propagation in an optical fiber, laws of refraction, image formation using concave
and convex lenses and combination of these lenses, lens formula, light propagation through prisms, dispersion in prism,
defects in eye- Myopia and hypermetropia. Subjects have been evaluated through pre and post tests in order to measure
the improvement in their level of understanding.
In this paper, we report design and development of optical sensor for the determination of adulteration in petrol using
optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). OTDR is generally used to find out fault in optical fibers but we effectively
use this technique for the determination of the percentage of adulteration in petrol. This OTDR method enables detection
of adulteration in petrol very accurately. The OTDR measurement method reported in this paper is easy to carry out and
also a cost effective tool for the determination of adulteration in petrol.
In this work, the observation of phase delay changes between parallel and perpendicular components of an optical beam
reflected on a metal surface is reported. Those changes have been induced by electrically charging a metal with static
charge. A quasimonochromatic lineally polarized beam is directed to a piece of steel where the beam is reflected, the
polarization of the reflected beam is in general elliptical. The module of each polarization component and their
difference of phase are measured with an ellipsometer. For the experiments we have started by making ellipsometry
measurements on a grounded steel sample, then a second measurement has been carried out on the same sample after
inducing electrostatic charge, results indicate a rotation of the elliptical polarization in the beam reflected on the
electrically charged sample.
We did a research as follows.
First of all, selected optimum LEDs and mixed it for higher CRI, target CCT and illuminance.
The following step is optical module design. Light directional characteristics of dental lighting must be concentrated to
illuminate a part. Because This part is oral cavity, The feature of illumination pattern is rectangular. For uniformity of
illuminance and clearer pattern boundary at reference distance, we designed it as direct type (no use reflector) by
imaging optic technique. First, Image is rectangular feature, so object must be the same feature with magnification in
general imaging optics. But the emitting surface feature of LED (1W grade) is square or circular generally. For that
reason, made object as rectangular source with rectangular lightguide. This optical component was designed for higher
efficiency by illumination optic technique. Next, we designed optical lenses based on imaging optic technique for image
object feature using Code V. set to high NA for light efficiency in this design. Fundamentally, Finally, This product is
luminaire so illumination simulation and result analysis were executed by LightTools as illumination design software.
The free space optical communication systems should utilize optical antennas with beam tracking mechanisms. However,
the narrow field of view and optical aberration of antennas degrade the tracking performance of the system. In order to
overcome the problems, we investigate the wide field of view optical antenna technology. The optical antenna consists of
fisheye lens, compensating lens and a catadioptric telescope with off-axis aspheric surface mirrors. The structures and
performances of the optical device elements are numerically analyzed so that their designs can make positive
contribution in enlarging the field of view and reducing the optical aberration. The final optical antenna design is
presented, along with the evaluation of optical performance and tracking characteristics. The proposed optical antenna
could not only provide a wide field of view with approximately 60 degree and expand the range for tracking mechanism,
but also mitigate the optical aberration and improve tracking accuracy of free space optical communication systems in