The term benchmark originates from the chiseled horizontal marks that surveyors made, into which an angle-iron could
be placed to bracket ("bench") a leveling rod, thus ensuring that the leveling rod can be repositioned in exactly the same
place in the future. A benchmark in computer terms is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in
order to assess the relative performance of an object by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. This
paper will discuss the history of simulation benchmarks that are being used by multiple branches of the military and
agencies of the US government. These benchmarks range from missile defense applications to chemical biological
situations. Typically, a benchmark is used with Monte Carlo runs in order to tease out how algorithms deal with
variability and the range of possible inputs. We will also describe problems that can be solved by a benchmark.