27 September 2011 Cryogenic CMOS avalanche diodes for nuclear physics research
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Exploration in nuclear physics may require extreme conditions, such as temperatures down to a few Kelvin, high magnetic fields of several Tesla, or the small physical dimensions of a few centimeters. As a standard technique for radiation detection using scintillation materials, it is desirable to develop photodetectors that can operate under these harsh conditions. Though photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) have been used for most applications for readout of scintillation materials, they are bulky, highly susceptible to magnetic fields, and present a large heat load in cryogenic environments. Avalanche photodiodes are a reasonable alternative to PMTs in that they are extremely compact and less susceptible to magnetic fields. Avalanche photodiodes have been developed in a commercial CMOS process for operation at temperatures below 100 Kelvin. Here we present the overall operation of the photodiodes at 5 Kelvin. The diodes show a quantum efficiency of at least 30% at 532 nm at 5 Kelvin. At about 30 Kelvin, the diodes exhibit an internal resistive term, which generates a second breakdown point. The prototype diode shows a proportional response to the intensity of light pulses down to 150 detected photons with a hole to electron ionization ratio, k, of 2.3x10-13 at 5 Kelvin. The properties of the photodiodes and the readout electronics will be discussed for general photon detection below 100 K.
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Xiao Jie Chen, Xiao Jie Chen, Erik B. Johnson, Erik B. Johnson, Christopher J. Stapels, Christopher J. Stapels, Chad Whitney, Chad Whitney, Eric Chapman, Eric Chapman, Guy Alberghini, Guy Alberghini, Frank Augustine, Frank Augustine, Rory Miskimen, Rory Miskimen, James F. Christian, James F. Christian, } "Cryogenic CMOS avalanche diodes for nuclear physics research", Proc. SPIE 8142, Hard X-Ray, Gamma-Ray, and Neutron Detector Physics XIII, 81420O (27 September 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.893885; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.893885


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