22 August 2011 Compact CdZnTe-based gamma camera for prostate cancer imaging
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Abstract
In this paper, we discuss the design of a compact gamma camera for high-resolution prostate cancer imaging using Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) radiation detectors. Prostate cancer is a common disease in men. Nowadays, a blood test measuring the level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is widely used for screening for the disease in males over 50, followed by (ultrasound) imaging-guided biopsy. However, PSA tests have a high falsepositive rate and ultrasound-guided biopsy has a high likelihood of missing small cancerous tissues. Commercial methods of nuclear medical imaging, e.g. PET and SPECT, can functionally image the organs, and potentially find cancer tissues at early stages, but their applications in diagnosing prostate cancer has been limited by the smallness of the prostate gland and the long working distance between the organ and the detectors comprising these imaging systems. CZT is a semiconductor material with wide band-gap and relatively high electron mobility, and thus can operate at room temperature without additional cooling. CZT detectors are photon-electron direct-conversion devices, thus offering high energy-resolution in detecting gamma rays, enabling energy-resolved imaging, and reducing the background of Compton-scattering events. In addition, CZT material has high stopping power for gamma rays; for medical imaging, a few-mm-thick CZT material provides adequate detection efficiency for many SPECT radiotracers. Because of these advantages, CZT detectors are becoming popular for several SPECT medical-imaging applications. Most recently, we designed a compact gamma camera using CZT detectors coupled to an application-specific-integratedcircuit (ASIC). This camera functions as a trans-rectal probe to image the prostate gland from a distance of only 1-5 cm, thus offering higher detection efficiency and higher spatial resolution. Hence, it potentially can detect prostate cancers at their early stages. The performance tests of this camera have been completed. The results show better than 6-mm resolution at a distance of 1 cm. Details of the test results are discussed in this paper.
© (2011) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Yonggang Cui, Yonggang Cui, Terry Lall, Terry Lall, Benjamin Tsui, Benjamin Tsui, Jianhua Yu, Jianhua Yu, George Mahler, George Mahler, Aleksey Bolotnikov, Aleksey Bolotnikov, Paul Vaska, Paul Vaska, Gianluigi De Geronimo, Gianluigi De Geronimo, Paul O'Connor, Paul O'Connor, George Meinken, George Meinken, John Joyal, John Joyal, John Barrett, John Barrett, Giuseppe Camarda, Giuseppe Camarda, Anwar Hossain, Anwar Hossain, Ki Hyun Kim, Ki Hyun Kim, Ge Yang, Ge Yang, Marty Pomper, Marty Pomper, Steve Cho, Steve Cho, Ken Weisman, Ken Weisman, Youngho Seo, Youngho Seo, John Babich, John Babich, Norman LaFrance, Norman LaFrance, Ralph B. James, Ralph B. James, } "Compact CdZnTe-based gamma camera for prostate cancer imaging", Proc. SPIE 8192, International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Laser Sensing and Imaging; and Biological and Medical Applications of Photonics Sensing and Imaging, 819255 (22 August 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.901078; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.901078
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