15 August 2011 Optical properties of water for the Yangbajing water cherenkov detector
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Cherenkov radiation is used to study the production of particles during collisions, cosmic rays detections and distinguishing between different types of neutrinos and electrons. The optical properties of water are very important to the research of Cherenkov Effect. Lambert-beer law is a method to study the attenuation of light through medium. In this paper, optical properties of water are investigated by use of a water attenuation performance test system. The system is composed of the light-emitting diode (LED) light source and the photon receiver models. The LED light source model provides a pulse light signal which frequency is 1 kHz and width is 100ns. In photon receiver model, a high sensitivity photomultiplier tube (PMT) is used to detect the photons across the water. Because the output voltage amplitude of PMT is weak which is from 80mv to 120mV, a low noise pre-amplifier is used to improve the detector precise. An effective detector maximum time window of PMT is 100ns for a long lifetime, so a peak holder circuit is used to hold the maximum peak amplitude of PMT for the induced photons signal before the digitalization. In order to reduce the noise of peak holder, a multi-pulse integration is used before the sampling of analog to digital converter. At last, the detector of photons from the light source to the PMT across the water is synchronized to the pulse width of the LED. In order to calculate the attenuation coefficient and attenuation length of water precisely, the attenuation properties of air-to-water boundary is considered in the calculation.
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Shang-qi Gao, Shang-qi Gao, Zhi-bin Sun, Zhi-bin Sun, Yuan-da Jiang, Yuan-da Jiang, Chao Wang, Chao Wang, Ke-ming Du, Ke-ming Du, } "Optical properties of water for the Yangbajing water cherenkov detector", Proc. SPIE 8196, International Symposium on Photoelectronic Detection and Imaging 2011: Space Exploration Technologies and Applications, 81961H (15 August 2011); doi: 10.1117/12.900762; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.900762

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