9 February 2012 Entropy-based measures of in vivo cilia-driven microfluidic mixing derived from quantitative optical imaging
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Abstract
Motile cilia are cellular organelles that project from different epithelial surfaces including respiratory epithelium. They generate directional fluid flow that removes harmful pathogens and particulate matter from the respiratory system. While it has been known that primary ciliary dyskinesia increases the risk of recurrent pulmonary infections, there is now heightened interest in understanding the role that cilia play in a wide-variety of respiratory diseases. Different optical imaging technologies are being investigated to visualize cilia-driven fluid flow, and quantitative image analysis is used to generate measures of ciliary performance. Here, we demonstrate the quantification of in vivo cilia-driven microfluidic mixing using spatial and temporal measures of Shannon information entropy. Using videomicroscopy, we imaged in vivo cilia-driven fluid flow generated by the epidermis of the Xenopus tropicalis embryo. Flow was seeded with either dyes or microparticles. Both spatial and temporal measures of entropy show significant levels of mixing, with maximum entropy measures of ~6.5 (out of a possible range of 0 to 8). Spatial entropy measures showed localization of mixing "hot-spots" and "cold-spots" and temporal measures showed mixing throughout.In sum, entropy-based measures of microfluidic mixing can characterize in vivo cilia-driven fluid flow and hold the potential for better characterization of ciliary dysfunction.
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Kenny Chandrasekera, Kenny Chandrasekera, Stephan Jonas, Stephan Jonas, Dipankan Bhattacharya, Dipankan Bhattacharya, Mustafa Khokha, Mustafa Khokha, Michael A. Choma, Michael A. Choma, } "Entropy-based measures of in vivo cilia-driven microfluidic mixing derived from quantitative optical imaging", Proc. SPIE 8207, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VIII, 82073K (9 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.906428; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.906428
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