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9 February 2012 Intense high-frequency pressure waves produced with low laser fluences
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Pressure waves generated by laser pulses can permeabilize biological barriers, such as the skin or cellular membranes. The characteristics of the absorbing materials are decisive in determining the shape and amplitude of pressure impulse transients. Based on the physics and photochemistry of light-to-pressure conversion, we generate high intensity broadband ultrasound capable of transiently permeabilizing biological barriers. We show evidence that no damage is done to cells exposed to such pressure waves and that skin recovers its protective function some minutes after exposure to the pressure waves. The ability of the pressure waves to promote transient skin permeabilization is assessed by the increase of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) immediately after the application of pressure waves, and by the full recovery of the skin to the normal TEWL values in the following minutes.
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Carlos Serpa, Gonçalo F. F. Sá, and Luis G. Arnaut "Intense high-frequency pressure waves produced with low laser fluences", Proc. SPIE 8207, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VIII, 82070I (9 February 2012);

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