9 February 2012 Combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic diagnosis of early bone loss and density variations
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Abstract
Over the past two decades, osteoporosis has been recognized among the most serious public health problems. Fortunately with the growing awareness of osteoporosis, new treatments have been developed for the prevention of fracture. At the same time, there is a rapid improvement in diagnostic methods. In this study biomedical photoacoustics (PA) is applied to the analysis of bone mineral concentration. The PA signal depends on optical as well as mechanical properties of the object and therefore has the potential to provide higher sensitivity to density variations compared with standard diagnostic methods, like ultrasound. A laser source with 800 nm wavelength and different ultrasonic transducers with resonance frequencies in the range 1 to 5 MHz were employed. The CW or frequency-domain (FD) PA radar method was utilized with linear frequency modulation chirps to provide temporal gating control over the transmitted signal and higher sensitivity in the detected signal. The laser intensity was set below the safety standards for skin exposure. The preliminary studies showed adequate optical absorption by cortical bone to generate measurable PA signals and the transmission of laser light through this layer. Experiments are focused on detection and evaluation of PA signals from in-vitro animal cortical bones with and without a trabecular sublayer. The trabecular layer is then diluted by chemical etching and differences in the PA signals are discussed.
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Bahman Lashkari, Andreas Mandelis, "Combined photoacoustic and ultrasonic diagnosis of early bone loss and density variations", Proc. SPIE 8207, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics VIII, 82076K (9 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.908642; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.908642
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