9 February 2012 Delayed photolysis of liposomes: a strategy for the precision timing of bolus drug release using ex-vivo photochemical sensitization
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Chemotherapy is a standard treatment for metastatic cancer. However drug toxicity limits the dosage that can safely be used, thus reducing treatment efficacy. Drug carrier particles, like liposomes, can help reduce toxicity by shielding normal tissue from drug and selectively depositing drug in tumors. Over years of development, liposomes have been optimized to avoid uptake by the Reticuloendothelial System (RES) as well as effectively retain their drug content during circulation. As a result, liposomes release drug passively, by slow leakage, but this uncontrolled drug release can limit treatment efficacy as it can be difficult to achieve therapeutic concentrations of drug at tumor sites even with tumor-specific accumulation of the carriers. Lipid membranes can be photochemically lysed by both Type I (photosensitizer-substrate) and Type II (photosensitizer-oxygen) reactions. It has been demonstrated in red blood cells (RBCs) in vitro that these photolysis reactions can occur in two distinct steps: a light-initiated reaction followed by a thermally-initiated reaction. These separable activation steps allow for the delay of photohemolysis in a controlled manner using the irradiation energy, temperature and photosensitizer concentration. In this work we have translated this technique from RBCs to liposomal nanoparticles. To that end, we present in vitro data demonstrating this delayed bolus release from liposomes, as well as the ability to control the timing of this event. Further, we demonstrate for the first time the improved delivery of bioavailable cargo selectively to target sites in vivo.
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Raymond T. Kozikowski, Raymond T. Kozikowski, Brian S. Sorg, Brian S. Sorg, } "Delayed photolysis of liposomes: a strategy for the precision timing of bolus drug release using ex-vivo photochemical sensitization", Proc. SPIE 8221, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XXIII, 82211I (9 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.909071; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.909071

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