2 February 2012 Inorganic nanoparticles and the immune system: detection, selective activation and tolerance
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The immune system is the responsible for body integrity and prevention of external invasion. On one side, nanoparticles are no triggers that the immune system is prepared to detect, on the other side it is known that foreign bodies, not only bacteria, viruses and parasites, but also inorganic matter, can cause various pathologies such as silicosis, asbestosis or inflammatory reactions. Therefore, nanoparticles entering the body, after interaction with proteins, will be either recognized as self-agents or detected by the immune system, encompassing immunostimulation or immunosuppression responses. The nature of these interactions seems to be dictated not specially by the composition of the material but by modifications of NP coating (composition, surface charge and structure). Herein, we explore the use of gold nanoparticles as substrates to carry multifunctional ligands to manipulate the immune system in a controlled manner, from undetection to immunostimulation. Murine bone marrow macrophages can be activated with artificial nanometric objects consisting of a gold nanoparticle functionalized with peptides. In the presence of some conjugates, macrophage proliferation was stopped and pro-inflammatory cytokines were induced. The biochemical type of response depended on the type of conjugated peptide and was correlated with the degree of ordering in the peptide coating. These findings help to illustrate the basic requirements involved in medical NP conjugate design to either activate the immune system or hide from it, in order to reach their targets before being removed by phagocytes. Additionally, it opens up the possibility to modulate the immune response in order to suppress unwanted responses resulting from autoimmunity, or allergy or to stimulate protective responses against pathogens.
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Neus G. Bastús, Neus G. Bastús, Ester Sánchez-Tilló, Ester Sánchez-Tilló, Silvia Pujals, Silvia Pujals, Joan Comenge, Joan Comenge, Ernest Giralt, Ernest Giralt, Antonio Celada, Antonio Celada, Jorge Lloberas, Jorge Lloberas, Victor F. Puntes, Victor F. Puntes, "Inorganic nanoparticles and the immune system: detection, selective activation and tolerance", Proc. SPIE 8232, Colloidal Nanocrystals for Biomedical Applications VII, 823217 (2 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.917327; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.917327

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