17 February 2012 Process limitations in microassembling using holographic optical tweezers
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Microassembling with holographic optical tweezers (HOT) is a flexible manufacturing technology for the precise fabrication of complex microstructures. In contrast to classical direct writing techniques, here, microparticles are transported within a fluid to appropriate positions, where they are finally bound. Therefore, optical forces act against the inner friction of the fluid. This effect limits the microassembling process in the meaning of process speed. In this work we investigate these limitations depending on the applied laser power and particle size. Additionally, different to conventional optical tweezers, HOTs use spatial light modulators (SLM) to control the laser beam and the object's position. This is performed at discrete step sizes caused by successively imaging respective kinoforms on the SLM at specific refresh rates. An optimization of the step size and the applied update rate are crucial to reach maximum velocities in particle movement. Therefore, the performance of dynamic particle manipulation is investigated in individual experiments. Stable manipulation velocities of up to 114 μm/s have been reported in our work using 6 μm polystyrene particles and an applied laser power of 445 mW.
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R. Ghadiri, R. Ghadiri, Q. Guo, Q. Guo, I. Yeoh, I. Yeoh, C. Esen, C. Esen, A. Ostendorf, A. Ostendorf, } "Process limitations in microassembling using holographic optical tweezers", Proc. SPIE 8244, Laser-based Micro- and Nanopackaging and Assembly VI, 82440L (17 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.906679; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.906679

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