30 January 2012 Femtosecond laser waveguide writing for integrated quantum optics
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Abstract
Photonics is a powerful framework for testing in experiments quantum information ideas, which promise significant advantages in computation, cryptography, measurement and simulation tasks. Linear optics is in principle sufficient to achieve universal quantum computation, but stability requirements become severe when experiments have to be implemented with bulk components. Integrated photonic circuits, on the contrary, due to their compact monolithic structure, easily overcome stability and size limitations of bench-top setups. Anyway, for quantum information applications, they have been operated so far only with fixed polarization states of the photons. On the other hand, many important quantum information processes and sources of entangled photon states are based on the polarization degree of freedom. In our work we demonstrate femtosecond laser fabrication of novel integrated components which are able to support and manipulate polarization entangled photons. The low birefringence and the unique possibility of engineering three-dimensional circuit layouts, allow femtosecond laser written waveguides to be eminently suited for quantum optics applications. In fact, this technology enables to realize polarization insensitive circuits which have been employed for entangled Bell state filtration and implementation of discrete quantum walk of entangled photons. Polarization sensitive devices can also be fabricated, such as partially polarizing directional couplers, which have enabled on-chip integration of quantum logic gates reaching high fidelity operation.
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Andrea Crespi, Linda Sansoni, Giuseppe Vallone, Fabio Sciarrino, Roberta Ramponi, Paolo Mataloni, Roberto Osellame, "Femtosecond laser waveguide writing for integrated quantum optics", Proc. SPIE 8247, Frontiers in Ultrafast Optics: Biomedical, Scientific, and Industrial Applications XII, 82470L (30 January 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.907880; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.907880
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