21 February 2012 Spectroscopic ellipsometry: metrology for photovoltaics from the nanoscale to gigawatts
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Abstract
Non-destructive, non-invasive measurement and monitoring tools, such as spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), are needed at all scales of thin film photovoltaic (PV) technology development - from the nanometer scale that describes the electronic and physical structure of materials fabricated in research laboratories to the gigawatt scale that requires the large-area uniformity of materials made in mass production. In the research laboratory, real time SE during materials fabrication has provided insights into the structural and electronic property evolution, and dielectric functions of the thin films. Here we will present such results for the growth of thin film PV materials of various compositions and properties, including those used in the demanding I-III-VI2 solar cell technology. In the PV manufacturing plant, mapping SE can be used to evaluate the uniformity of thickness and properties of the layers in full scale PV panels and even in completed modules. Here we will present representative results for the uniformity of CdS, the window layer in CdTe PV technology, which reached 1.4 GW annual production in 2010.
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Sylvain Marsillac, Robert W. Collins, "Spectroscopic ellipsometry: metrology for photovoltaics from the nanoscale to gigawatts", Proc. SPIE 8256, Physics, Simulation, and Photonic Engineering of Photovoltaic Devices, 825613 (21 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.909628; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.909628
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