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24 January 2012 Efficient optical amplification for spatial division multiplexing
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Spatial division multiplexing has been proposed for fiber capacity increase as an alternative to enhanced bandwidth efficiency by higher order modulation or wider wavelength bands. The commercial viability of this approach will depend strongly on the feasibility of cost and energy efficient optical amplification. Lumped erbium doped fiber and distributed Raman amplifiers are the most promising candidates. Different approaches have been analyzed for the realization of preamplifier and booster stages with different active fiber types. The multi mode fiber type was found to possess more potential for cost and energy efficiency than the multi core fiber type.
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Peter M. Krummrich "Efficient optical amplification for spatial division multiplexing", Proc. SPIE 8284, Next-Generation Optical Communication: Components, Sub-Systems, and Systems, 82840F (24 January 2012);

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