We review the motivation and development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in diagnostic medical imaging,
particularly in breast cancer screening. After briefly describe in generic terms of typical CAD methods, we focus on the
question of whether CAD helps improve diagnostic accuracy. We review both studies that support the notion that CAD
helps improve diagnostic accuracy and studies that do not. We further identify difficulties in conducting this type of
evaluation studies and suggest areas of perceptual challenges to applications of CAD.