13 February 2012 Locatability of modified pixels in steganographic images
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Payload location using residuals is a successful approach to identify load-carrying pixels provided a large number of stego images are available. Furthermore, each image must have the payload embedded at the same locations. The success of payload location is therefore limited if different keys are used or an adaptive embedding algorithm is used. Given these limitations, the focus of this paper is to locate modified pixels in a single stego image. Given a sufficiently large set of independent binary decision functions, each determines whether a pixel has been modified better than guessing, we show that it is possible to locate modified pixels in a single stego image with low error rate. We construct these functions using existing cover estimators and provide experimental results to support our analysis.
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Tu-Thach Quach, "Locatability of modified pixels in steganographic images", Proc. SPIE 8303, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics 2012, 83030Q (13 February 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.905599; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.905599

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