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15 February 2012 Parameters of the human 3D gaze while observing portable autostereoscopic display: a model and measurement results
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We present an approach to measure and model the parameters of human point-of-gaze (PoG) in 3D space. Our model considers the following three parameters: position of the gaze in 3D space, volume encompassed by the gaze and time for the gaze to arrive on the desired target. Extracting the 3D gaze position from binocular gaze data is hindered by three problems. The first problem is the lack of convergence - due to micro saccadic movements the optical lines of both eyes rarely intersect at a point in space. The second problem is resolution - the combination of short observation distance and limited comfort disparity zone typical for a mobile 3D display does not allow the depth of the gaze position to be reliably extracted. The third problem is measurement noise - due to the limited display size, the noise range is close to the range of properly measured data. We have developed a methodology which allows us to suppress most of the measurement noise. This allows us to estimate the typical time which is needed for the point-of-gaze to travel in x, y or z direction. We identify three temporal properties of the binocular PoG. The first is reaction time, which is the minimum time that the vision reacts to a stimulus position change, and is measured as the time between the event and the time the PoG leaves the proximity of the old stimulus position. The second is the travel time of the PoG between the old and new stimulus position. The third is the time-to-arrive, which is the time combining the reaction time, travel time, and the time required for the PoG to settle in the new position. We present the method for filtering the PoG outliers, for deriving the PoG center from binocular eye-tracking data and for calculating the gaze volume as a function of the distance between PoG and the observer. As an outcome from our experiments we present binocular heat maps aggregated over all observers who participated in a viewing test. We also show the mean values for all temporal properties separately for x, y and z direction averaged over all observers. We show the typical size of a binocular area of interest for a portable autostereoscopic display, as well as typical time the 3D vision can react to sudden changes in a 3D scene.
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Atanas Boev, Marianne Hanhela, Atanas Gotchev, Timo Utirainen, Satu Jumisko-Pyykkö, and Miska Hannuksela "Parameters of the human 3D gaze while observing portable autostereoscopic display: a model and measurement results", Proc. SPIE 8304, Multimedia on Mobile Devices 2012; and Multimedia Content Access: Algorithms and Systems VI, 830407 (15 February 2012);

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