The novel prototype system for advanced visualization for image-guided left atrial ablation therapy developed
in our laboratory permits ready integration of multiple imaging modalities, surgical instrument tracking, interventional
devices and electro-physiologic data. This technology allows subject-specific procedure planning and
guidance using 3D dynamic, patient-specific models of the patient's heart, augmented with real-time intracardiac
echocardiography (ICE). In order for the 2D ICE images to provide intuitive visualization for accurate
catheter to surgical target navigation, the transducer must be tracked, so that the acquired images can be appropriately
presented with respect to the patient-specific anatomy. Here we present the implementation of a
previously developed ultrasound calibration technique for a magnetically tracked ICE transducer, along with a
series of evaluation methods to ensure accurate imaging and faithful representation of the imaged structures.
Using an engineering-designed phantom, target localization accuracy is assessed by comparing known target
locations with their transformed locations inferred from the tracked US images. In addition, the 3D volume
reconstruction accuracy is also estimated by comparing a truth volume to that reconstructed from sequential 2D
US images. Clinically emulating validation studies are conducted using a patient-specific left atrial phantom.
Target localization error of clinically-relevant surgical targets represented by nylon fiducials implanted within the
endocardial wall of the phantom was assessed. Our studies have demonstrated 2.4 ± 0.8 mm target localization
error in the engineering-designed evaluation phantoms, 94.8 ± 4.6 % volume reconstruction accuracy, and 3.1 ±
1.2 mm target localization error in the left atrial-mimicking phantom. These results are consistent with those
disseminated in the literature and also with the accuracy constraints imposed by the employed technology and
the clinical application.