12 April 2012 Alteration of functional connectivity during real-time fMRI regulation of PCC
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Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) can be used to train the subjects to selectively control activity of specific brain area so as to affect the activation in the target region and even to improve cognition and behavior. So far, whether brain activity in posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be regulated by rtfMRI has not been reported. In the present study, we aimed at investigating whether real-time regulation of activity in PCC can change the functional connectivity between PCC and other brain regions. A total of 12 subjects underwent two training runs, each lasts 782s. During the training, subjects were instructed to down regulate activity in PCC by imagining right hand finger movement with the sequence of 4-2-3-1-3-4-2 during task and relax as possible as they can during rest. To control for any effects induced by repeated practice, another 12 subjects in the control group received the same experiment procedure and instruction except with no feedback during training. Experiment results show that increased functional connectivity of PCC with medial frontal cortex (MFC) was observed in both groups during the two training runs. However, PCC of the experimental group is correlated with larger areas in MFC than the control group. Because the positive correlation between task performance and MFC to PCC connectivity has been demonstrated previously, we infer that the stronger connectivity between PCC and MFC in the experimental group may suggest that the experimental group with neurofeedback can more efficiently regulate PCC than the control group without neurofeedback.
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Gaoyan Zhang, Gaoyan Zhang, Li Yao, Li Yao, Zhiying Long, Zhiying Long, } "Alteration of functional connectivity during real-time fMRI regulation of PCC", Proc. SPIE 8317, Medical Imaging 2012: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 83170C (12 April 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.911134; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.911134

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