22 March 2012 A 6.7-nm beyond EUV source as a future lithography source
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We demonstrate an efficient extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source for operation at λ = 6.7 nm by optimizing the optical thickness of gadolinium (Gd) plasmas. Using low initial density Gd targets and dual laser pulse irradiation, we observed a maximum EUV conversion efficiency (CE) of 0.54% for 0.6% bandwidth (BW) (1.8% for 2%BW), which is 1.6 times larger than the 0.33% (0.6%BW) CE produced from a solid density target. Enhancement of the EUV CE by use of a low-density plasma is attributed to the reduction of self-absorption effects.
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Takamitsu Otsuka, Bowen Li, Colm O'Gorman, Thomas Cummins, Deirdre Kilbane, Takeshi Higashiguchi, Noboru Yugami, Weihua Jiang, Akira Endo, Padraig Dunne, Gerard O'Sullivan, "A 6.7-nm beyond EUV source as a future lithography source", Proc. SPIE 8322, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography III, 832214 (22 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.916351; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.916351

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