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23 March 2012 Longer wavelength EUV lithography (LW-EUVL)
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Abstract
Extreme UV Lithography (EUVL) is generally accepted as the leading candidate for next generation lithography. Several challenges remain for EUVL, especially as its insertion point is pushed to finer resolution. Although diffractive scaling may suggest a transition to shorter EUVL wavelengths, several issues arise that would make that difficult. Challenges involve issues such as flare, multilayer (ML) bandwidth, and reflector throughput which tend to worsen with decreasing wavelength. In this study, we have evaluated the tradeoff between flare scaling effects and diffractive scaling effects for EUVL, where flare induced image degradation is likely to dominate as sub-13.5 nm wavelengths are considered. With surface scatter effects scaling as 1/λ2, the idea of longer wavelength (LW-EUVL) becomes interesting. Since a working wavelength is driven by the selection of ML materials (which are molybdenum and silicon for 13.5 nm), the identification of suitable alternatives is an initial challenge. We have optimized aluminum and various refractory metals at 17.2 nm and present results. The optimized combination of aluminum with yttrium, zirconium, and other metals result in theoretical reflectivity values above 75%. We also describe possibilities for alternative LW-EUVL sources for 17.2 nm operation as well as the impact on resist absorption, especially through halogens of higher molar absorption (such as fluorine). The impact on mask absorber materials is also presented, which may also exhibit increased absorbance, leading to a lowering of film thickness requirements.
© (2012) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Christopher W. Maloney and Bruce W. Smith "Longer wavelength EUV lithography (LW-EUVL)", Proc. SPIE 8322, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography III, 83222Z (23 March 2012); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.917912
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