21 March 2012 Nanosphere lithography based technique for fabrication of large area well ordered metal particle arrays
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Nanosphere lithography is an effective technique for high throughput fabrication of well-ordered patterns, but expanding the method to large area coverage of nanoparticles less than 300 nm in diameter while maintaining good order has proven challenging. Here we demonstrate a nanosphere lithography based technique for fabricating large area, wellordered arrays of hemispherical metal particles which pushes the limits of these size constraints. First, large area monolayers of polystyrene (PS) nanospheres are assembled at an air-water interface and then transferred to a submerged substrate. The submerged substrate is supported at a 10° angle so that the water draining speed can be used to control the transfer rate, which is essential for hydrophobic substrates such as the polymer-coated glass used in our work. A double liftoff procedure was used to transfer the PS pattern to a silver particle array on an arbitrary substrate, achieving tunable control over the final metal particle diameter and spacing in the range of 50-150 nm and 100-200 nm, respectively. Additional control over particle shape and diameter can be obtained by modifying the substrate surface energy. For example, depositing silver on ITO-coated glass rather than a more hydrophilic clean glass substrate leads to a more hemispherical particle shape and a diameter reduction of 20%. Peak wavelength-selective reflection greater than 70% and total extinction greater than 90% were measured. The intensity, position and bandwidth of the main plasmon resonance of the arrays were shown to have minimal angle dependence up to at least 30° off normal.
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Steven J. Barcelo, Steven J. Barcelo, Si-Ty Lam, Si-Ty Lam, Gary A. Gibson, Gary A. Gibson, Xia Sheng, Xia Sheng, Dick Henze, Dick Henze, "Nanosphere lithography based technique for fabrication of large area well ordered metal particle arrays", Proc. SPIE 8323, Alternative Lithographic Technologies IV, 83232L (21 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.916600; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.916600

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