3 April 2012 Measuring thermally induced void growth in conformally filled through-silicon vias (TSVs) by laboratory x-ray microscopy
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Abstract
Laboratory-based X-ray microscopy combined with computational tomography imaging is demonstrated to have advantages over other methods of inspecting through-silicon vias (TSVs). We show that the 8 keV X-rays used by Nano X-ray Computed Tomography (NanoXCTTM) are capable of imaging voids inside filled vias before and after annealing without cross-sectioning the TSV. A series of - TSV arrays filled conformally and from the bottom up were inspected by the X-ray microscope before and after annealing. Pre-existing voids in the seamline were observed in conformally filled TSVs before annealing, while bottom up-filled TSVs do not have a seamline or voids. The same TSV samples were repeatedly annealed at 225oC, and 300oC. After annealing, the X-ray micrograph of the same TSV array showed void growth in only the conformally filled TSV. In addition, X-ray measurements show the total volume of void growth increased with annealing temperature.
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L. W. Kong, L. W. Kong, J. R. Lloyd, J. R. Lloyd, M. Liehr, M. Liehr, A. C. Rudack, A. C. Rudack, S. Arkalgud, S. Arkalgud, A. C. Diebold, A. C. Diebold, "Measuring thermally induced void growth in conformally filled through-silicon vias (TSVs) by laboratory x-ray microscopy", Proc. SPIE 8324, Metrology, Inspection, and Process Control for Microlithography XXVI, 832412 (3 April 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.916599; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.916599
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