20 March 2012 Assessment of negative tone development challenges
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The objective of this work is to describe the advances in 193nm photoresists using negative tone developer and key challenges associated with 20nm and beyond technology nodes. Unlike positive tone resists which use protected polymer as the etch block, negative tone developer resists must adhere to a substrate with a deprotected polymer matrix; this poses adhesion and bonding challenges for this new patterning technology. This problem can be addressed when these photo resists are coated on anti-reflective coatings with plentiful silicon in them (SiARC), which are specifically tailored for compatibility with the solvent developing resist. We characterized these modified SiARC materials and found improvement in pattern collapse thru-pitches down to 100nm. Fundamental studies were carried out to understand the interactions between the resist materials and the developers. Different types of developers were evaluated and the best candidate was down selected for contact holes and line space applications. The negative tone developer proximity behavior has been investigated through optical proximity correction (OPC) verification. The defectivity through wafer has been driven down from over 1000 adders/wafer to less than 100 adders/wafer by optimizing the develop process. Electric yield test has been conducted and compared between positive tone and negative tone developer strategies. In addition, we have done extensive experimental work to reduce negative tone developer volume per wafer to bring cost of ownership (CoO) to a value that is equal or even lower than that of positive tone CoO.
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Sohan Singh Mehta, Sohan Singh Mehta, Yongan Xu, Yongan Xu, Guillaume Landie, Guillaume Landie, Vikrant Chauhan, Vikrant Chauhan, Sean D. Burns, Sean D. Burns, Peggy Lawson, Peggy Lawson, Bassem Hamieh, Bassem Hamieh, Jerome Wandell, Jerome Wandell, Martin Glodde, Martin Glodde, Yu Yang Sun, Yu Yang Sun, Mark Kelling, Mark Kelling, Alan Thomas, Alan Thomas, Jeong Soo Kim, Jeong Soo Kim, James Chen, James Chen, Hirokazu Kato, Hirokazu Kato, Chiahsun Tseng, Chiahsun Tseng, Chiew-Seng Koay, Chiew-Seng Koay, Yoshinori Matsui, Yoshinori Matsui, Martin Burkhardt, Martin Burkhardt, Yunpeng Yin, Yunpeng Yin, David Horak, David Horak, Shyng-Tsong Chen, Shyng-Tsong Chen, Yann Mignot, Yann Mignot, Yannick Loquet, Yannick Loquet, Matthew Colburn, Matthew Colburn, John Arnold, John Arnold, Terry Spooner, Terry Spooner, Lior Huli, Lior Huli, Dave Hetzer, Dave Hetzer, Jason Cantone, Jason Cantone, Shinichiro Kawakami, Shinichiro Kawakami, Shannon Dunn, Shannon Dunn, "Assessment of negative tone development challenges", Proc. SPIE 8325, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXIX, 832506 (20 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.917560; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.917560

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