19 March 2012 Contrast improvement with balanced diffusion control of PAG and PDB
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For semiconductor manufacturing of k1<0.3 half pitch, immersion lithography is still indispensable for process development and production. As the minimum feature size reaches the resolution limit, many resolution enhancement techniques and processes are developed to meet the stringent imaging requirements. Since the optical contrast is not sufficient for low-k1 application, the optimizing conditions for DOF, MEEF, LWR, 2D features, top-view profile, and defect become more challenging than ever for manufacturing. The low-k1 induced poor ADI (after development inspection) end-to-end profile is deleterious to pattern fidelity that may further impact the AEI (after etching inspection). From a previous study, the photo-decomposed base (PDB) has been proven effective in enhancing the resist contrast and improving the DOF from conventional quenchers. In this paper, we study its further improvement on litho performance by controlling the diffusion lengths of the PAG and the PDB. We split the polarity and size of the PAG and PDB to control the diffusion length. The top view profile is improved from rounding to vertical if a longer diffusion length of the PDB is selected. The scattering bar printing window can also be improved in such a condition. If the PAG and the PDB have better matching controls, the MEEF, LWR, CDU, and end-to-end top view profile are improved as shown in Fig.1.
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S. F. Chen, L. L. Chang, Y. H. Chang, C. C. Huang, C. Y. Chang, and Y. Ku "Contrast improvement with balanced diffusion control of PAG and PDB", Proc. SPIE 8325, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXIX, 83250O (19 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.915802; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.915802

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