19 March 2012 Ionic carbamate photoacid/photobase generators for the advancement of dual-tone photolithography
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Current work in lithographic patterning has been carried out using 193 nm excitation sources, limiting the pitch division to approximately λ/2 and, thus, the advancement of Moore's law. Recently, double patterning has emerged as a potential extension of 193 nm techniques as two lines can be patterned in one exposure. In this contribution, the double patterning features of single component carbamate photoacid/photobase generators (PAG/PBG) are examined. At lower exposure doses, sulfonic acid is generated, while at higher doses, a photochemical rearrangement is initiated to activate the PBG. Optimally, at intermediate doses, photoacid and photobase components can exist concurrently resulting in the desired dual tone lithographic features. The energy required to initiate dual tone behavior can be tailored through co-added amine quenchers and carbamate concentration. Using ellipsometry, the energy required for the resists to have the first sign of photoacid generation (film dissolution), E0, and at the energy required for photobase activation (En) were determined, as this value dictates the ability to achieve the desired pitch division.
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Geniece L. Hallett-Tapley, Tse-Luen Wee, Joby Eldo, Edward A. Jackson, James M Blackwell, Juan C. Scaiano, "Ionic carbamate photoacid/photobase generators for the advancement of dual-tone photolithography", Proc. SPIE 8325, Advances in Resist Materials and Processing Technology XXIX, 83251T (19 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.916496; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.916496

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