Current work in lithographic patterning has been carried out using 193 nm excitation sources, limiting the pitch division
to approximately λ/2 and, thus, the advancement of Moore's law. Recently, double patterning has emerged as a potential
extension of 193 nm techniques as two lines can be patterned in one exposure. In this contribution, the double patterning
features of single component carbamate photoacid/photobase generators (PAG/PBG) are examined. At lower exposure
doses, sulfonic acid is generated, while at higher doses, a photochemical rearrangement is initiated to activate the PBG.
Optimally, at intermediate doses, photoacid and photobase components can exist concurrently resulting in the desired
dual tone lithographic features. The energy required to initiate dual tone behavior can be tailored through co-added
amine quenchers and carbamate concentration. Using ellipsometry, the energy required for the resists to have the first
sign of photoacid generation (film dissolution), E0, and at the energy required for photobase activation (En) were
determined, as this value dictates the ability to achieve the desired pitch division.