Polymer implants are interesting alternatives to the contemporary load-bearing implants made from metals.
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK), a well-established biomaterial for example, is not only iso-elastic to bone but also permits
investigating the surrounding soft tissues using magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, which is
particularly important for cancer patients. The commercially available PEEK bone implants, however, require costly
coatings, which restricts their usage. As an alternative to coatings, plasma activation can be applied. The present paper
shows the plasma-induced preparation of nanostructures on polymer films and on injection-molded micro-cantilever
arrays and the associated chemical modifications of the surface. In vitro cell experiments indicate the suitability of the
activation process. In addition, we show that microstructures such as micro-grooves 1 μm deep and 20 μm wide cause
cell alignment. The combination of micro-injection molding, simultaneous microstructuring using inserts/bioreplica and
plasma treatments permits the preparation of polymer implants with nature-analogue, anisotropic micro- and nanostructures.