We have been studying electrochemomechanical deformation (ECMD) of conducting polymers to realize artificial
muscles or soft actuators, since 1992. For the practical application, i.e., strain, stress, response time, cycle stability and
creep have to be improved to levels of demands. In this paper, some attempts to improve the strain are mentioned for
polyaniline, polypyrrole and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT. Especially, PEDOT actuator was found to show
novel features in ECMD under tensile loads. The actuation was driven by cation insertion upon reduction in any
combination of electrolytes and solvents. Another interesting feature was that the actuation under tensile loads showed
larger strain than that without tensile loads. These facts were explained with a model of helical confinement of anions
during the electrodeposition and uniaxial alignment of helices by the electrochemical creep under tensile loads.