30 March 2012 Application of infrared thermometry and ultrasonic velocity for the investigation of the building materials of historic monuments of Dion, Greece
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Abstract
The sanctuaries of Demeter and Asklepios are part of the Dion archaeological site that sits among the eastern foothills of Mount Olympus and covers roughly 100 hectares. The excavations finds from this area are dated since the Hellenistic, Roman and Early Christian times. The main building materials are limestones and conglomerates. Sandstones, marbles, and ceramic plinths were also used. The materials consist mainly of calcite and/or dolomite, whereas the deteriorated surfaces contain also secondary and recrystallized calcite and dolomite, gypsum, various inorganic compounds, fluoroapatite, microorganisms and other organic compounds. Cracks and holes were observed in various parts of the stones. The most proper approach to select effective methods for the structural and surface consolidation, the cleaning, the protection and the overall conservation of these structures is the knowledge of the processes contributing to their deterioration. The influence of the water presence to the behavior of the materials was examined by in situ IR thermometer measurements. Temperature values increased from the lower to the upper parts of the building stones and they significantly depend on the orientation of the walls. The results indicate the existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration. To confirm these observations measurements of the following physical characteristics of the building materials have been studied: open porosity, pore size distribution, water absorption and desorption, capillary absorption and desorption. The existence of water in the bulk of the materials due to capillary penetration, the cycles of wet-dry conditions, correlated with the intensive surface and underground water presence in the whole surrounding area, lead to partial dissolution-recrystallization of the carbonate material and loss of the structural cohesion and the surface stability.
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E. Papanikolaou, E. Papanikolaou, P. Spathis, P. Spathis, B. Christaras, B. Christaras, V. Melfos, V. Melfos, } "Application of infrared thermometry and ultrasonic velocity for the investigation of the building materials of historic monuments of Dion, Greece", Proc. SPIE 8346, Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration 2012, 834610 (30 March 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.917579; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.917579
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