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30 March 2012 Low-velocity impact damage identification using a novel current injection thermographic technique
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Composite materials are widely used especially in the aerospace structures and systems. Therefore, inexpensive and efficient damage identification is crucial for the safe use and function of these structures. In these structures low-velocity impact is frequently the cause of damage, as it may even be induced during scheduled repair. Flaws caused by lowvelocity impact are dangerous as they may further develop to extended delaminations. For that purpose an effective inspection of defects and delaminations is necessary during the service life of the aerospace structures. Within the scope of this work, an innovative technique is developed based on current stimulating thermography. Electric current is injected to Carbon Fiber Reinforced Composite and aluminium (Al) plates with concurrent thermographic monitoring. For reference, both damaged and undamaged plates are inspected. Low-velocity impact damaged composite laminates at different energy levels are interrogated employing the novel technique. Live and pulse phase infrared thermography is employed for the identification of low-velocity impact damage at various energy levels while the electric current induces the transient thermal field in the vicinity of the defect. In all cases conventional ultrasonics (C-scan) were performed for the validation and assessment of the results of the innovative thermographic method.
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S. A. Grammatikos, E. Z. Kordatos, T. E. Matikas, and A. S. Paipetis "Low-velocity impact damage identification using a novel current injection thermographic technique", Proc. SPIE 8346, Smart Sensor Phenomena, Technology, Networks, and Systems Integration 2012, 83461A (30 March 2012);

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