3 May 2012 Kalman filter outputs for inclusion in video-stream metadata: accounting for the temporal correlation of errors for optimal target extraction
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Abstract
A video-stream associated with an Unmanned System or Full Motion Video can support the extraction of ground coordinates of a target of interest. The sensor metadata associated with the video-stream includes a time series of estimates of sensor position and attitude, required for down-stream single frame or multi-frame ground point extraction, such as stereo extraction using two frames in the video-stream that are separated in both time and imaging geometry. The sensor metadata may also include a corresponding time history of sensor position and attitude estimate accuracy (error covariance). This is required for optimal down-stream target extraction as well as corresponding reliable predictions of extraction accuracy. However, for multi-frame extraction, this is only a necessary condition. The temporal correlation of estimate errors (error cross-covariance) between an arbitrary pair of video frames is also required. When the estimates of sensor position and attitude are from a Kalman filter, as typically the case, the corresponding error covariances are automatically computed and available. However, the cross-covariances are not. This paper presents an efficient method for their exact representation in the metadata using additional, easily computed, data from the Kalman filter. The paper also presents an optimal weighted least squares extraction algorithm that correctly accounts for the temporal correlation, given the additional metadata. Simulation-based examples are presented that show the importance of correctly accounting for temporal correlation in multi-frame extraction algorithms.
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J. T. Dolloff, "Kalman filter outputs for inclusion in video-stream metadata: accounting for the temporal correlation of errors for optimal target extraction", Proc. SPIE 8360, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems and Applications IX, 83600I (3 May 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.918630; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.918630
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KEYWORDS
Filtering (signal processing)

Sensors

Error analysis

Image sensors

Video

Image processing

Image registration

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