4 May 2012 Integration of independent component analysis with near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of rice freshness
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Determination of freshness is an important issue for rice quality. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a rapid nondestructive inspection method based on specific absorptions within a given range of wavelengths corresponding to the constituents in the sample, has been widely applied for evaluation of internal quality of agricultural products. Since NIR spectra of a mixture may be approximated as the linear addition of individual spectra of the constituents in the mixture, such a mixture spectrum thus can be regarded as 'blind sources' as the proportion of constituents in the samples remains unknown. A multiuse statistical approach, independent component analysis (ICA), is capable of disassembling the mixture signals of Gaussian distribution into non-Gaussian independent constituents, and (with assumption of independent constituent spectral response) can give a complete explanation about the property of constituents in the mixture. By example, a total of 180 white rice samples were collected from 6 crop seasons (from 2006 to 2010) for the purpose of developing an ICA NIR based procedure for rice freshness. , Values of pH were determined by a conventional (bromothymol blue methyl red) method. The calibration model of white rice yielded Rc = 0.939, SEC = 0.202, rp = 0.803 and SEP = 0.233 using original full wavelength range (400 to 2498 nm) spectra and 5 independent components (ICs). Freshness of the white rice can be distinguished either visually by 3-dimensional diagram composed from ICs 2, 3 and 4, or statistically by a calibration model. The results show that ICA with NIR can quickly identify and effectively quantify the pH value in white rice with high predictability, and has the potential to be a useful tool for evaluating rice freshness.
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Yung-Kun Chuang, Yung-Kun Chuang, Suming Chen, Suming Chen, Stephen R. Delwiche, Stephen R. Delwiche, Y. Martin Lo, Y. Martin Lo, Chao-Yin Tsai, Chao-Yin Tsai, I-Chang Yang, I-Chang Yang, Yi-Ping Hu, Yi-Ping Hu, } "Integration of independent component analysis with near infrared spectroscopy for evaluation of rice freshness", Proc. SPIE 8369, Sensing for Agriculture and Food Quality and Safety IV, 83690X (4 May 2012); doi: 10.1117/12.921309; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.921309

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