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14 May 2012 Ladar imaging analytical approach using both outward and return path atmospheric turbulence phase-screens
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A methodology for laser radar / ladar imaging through atmospheric turbulence is studied for target feature extraction, acquisition, tracking, identification, etc. The procedure follows sequentially by (1) laser-mode propagation through the outward atmospheric path, which is modeled by using multiple turbulence phase-screens; (2) the propagated laser mode illuminates a target which is modeled using multiple facets; and (3) simultaneously, or near simultaneously, the return path turbulence effects are modeled by a reverse order Cn 2(h), Lo, and lo set of phase-screens assuming a plane-wave. This return path amplitude & phase screen is then used to create a pupil plus atmospheric effects impulse-response which is used to (4) accurately construct the image of a diffuse target on the detector focal plane array using conventional Fourier optics. Agreement of both the outward and the return path phase-screen matrices with their respective analytical turbulence parameters, which are independently computed, is shown. The Fourier optics construction process of the target's image is reviewed, and typical diffuse target images of facet model objects are presented illustrating scintillation and speckle effects. The images may then be used in algorithm development for a specific system performance determination.
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Douglas G. Youmans "Ladar imaging analytical approach using both outward and return path atmospheric turbulence phase-screens", Proc. SPIE 8379, Laser Radar Technology and Applications XVII, 83790F (14 May 2012);

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